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Cape Cod Cottage & History of Cape Cod Architecture

This early regional house style caught on like wildfire, and the Cape Cod home is arguably one of the most recognizable today. By Patricia Poore

    Full Cape with accretions, ca. 1750 and later, Truro, Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    Cape Cods are short, stout, and simple to the point of austerity. Nevertheless, they evoke powerful images of warmth and comfort, integrity and safety. A true colonial type widely copied to this day, the Cape Cod says “home.”

    There are two Cape Cod styles, really: the originals, modest and practical houses built from 1690 until 1850 or so; and the homey Colonial Revival Capes of the 20th century. The originals were most often half or three-quarter Capes, shingle-clad, sited to take advantage of the sun’s rays, their interiors centered on the hearth-warmed kitchen. Revival houses, neat and nostalgic behind their white picket fences, are most often symmetrical full Capes, often clapboarded and shuttered, painted white, with more formal and flexible floor plans.

    The term “Cape Cod House” was used as early as 1800, in a comment by Yale College president Timothy Dwight on a visit to Cape Cod in Massachusetts. Even by then, the type had spread; by 1740, such houses had been built throughout most of New England, and also on New York’s Long Island. By 1790 it had made its way into southern New York State. Homesteaders brought the Cape Cod house with them to central New York, to the area around Lake Erie, and by 1830 into Ohio and Michigan.

    A Colonial Revival-era Cape.

    Regional variants with gambrel and bowed roofs (for headroom), and sometimes with small dormers (for added light in the loft space), appeared in Massachusetts and Connecticut. As the house type was brought west during the early 19th century, builders added popular Greek Revival details. Inside, the earliest houses were spare and simple, with floors and furnishings of pine.

    Although Victorian styles eclipsed the plain Cape, these houses came back, in greater numbers than ever, during the Colonial Revival of the 1930s, often larger than the originals and with different framing methods, interior plans, staircases, and details. Owing to the romantic associations of 18th century models and the ubiquity of 20th century Capes, this is arguably the most recognized house style in America.

    Post and beam construction anchors the early Cape to its central chimney.

    Hallmarks of the Cape Cod Cottage

    Steep roof: side-gabled, single pitch
    Center chimney; ubiquitous in early examples
    Shingle-sided, and sometimes clapboarded on the front façade with shingles elsewhere
    Unornamented except for the entry door, which might have a simple transom, fanlight, pilasters, or sidelights. Later examples had austere Greek Revival trim, as on lintels.
    Windows often go to the roofline in early examples, attesting to the low ceiling height

    Variations of the Cape

    Full Cape (or Double Cape)
    Apparently the quintessential Cape Cod house, full Capes were actually rare in the 18th century. Those that existed belonged to the most accomplished settlers. They have a steep pitched roof and a symmetrical five-bay façade with a generous entrance door centered on the massive chimney.


    Three-Quarter Cape
    Although seldom copied in the Cape Cod revivals that would come many decades later, the three-quarter Cape was a mainstay of 18th- and early-19th-century New England. On the three-quarter Cape as well as the half Cape, the entry was offset slightly from the chimney.


    One-Half Cape (or Single Cape)
    The starter house of its day, the half Cape often evolved through subsequent additions into a three-quarter Cape and on to a full Cape as its occupants’ families and fortunes grew. Nevertheless, examples remain throughout New England.

    Inside the Cape

    The typical full Cape floor plan shows the importance of the keeping room (the kitchen/living/family room):

    Keeping room in coastal Maine, built 1819

    The keeping room typically has seven doors. The first is the back door, the second opens to a storage pantry, the third to a small bedroom, the fourth to the good parlor, the fifth to a larger bedroom, the sixth to an extra room that might be used for a hired hand, a child, or an ill member of the household. The seventh door opens to a cold pantry.

    Inside, the earliest houses were spare and simple, with floors and furnishings of pine. Wide plank floors might be painted in a reddish-brown or pumpkin orange, and spattered. As the house type was brought west during the early 19th century, builders added popular Greek Revival details, inside and out. Later, trade brought oriental rugs and china.

    Recommended Reading

    The Cape Cod Cottage
    By William Morgan (Princeton Architectural Press, 2006)
    An expanded essay on the charms of the originals, with both archival and modern photographs. Very good bibliography.

    Early Cape Cod interior

    A Book of Cape Cod Houses
    By Doris Doane (David R. Godine, 2007).
    The history of the Cape from wind-beaten shingled dwellings in New England to the mainstay of the postwar building boom. Covers 720-square-foot Levittown examples as well as the sprawling Capes of Concord. Pencil drawings show floor plans, rooms, and exteriors.

    The Cape Cod House
    By Stanley Schuler (Schiffer, 1982)
    The development of the Cape from New England originals through multi-winged versions of the 20th century.

    Big House, Little House, Back House, Barn
    By Thomas C. Hubka (Univ. Press of New England, reissued 2004)
    Rural houses and farmsteads, many early 19th-century and some with a Cape at center. A fascinating and seminal book about vernacular architecture.


    { 6 comments… read them below or add one }

    Steven April 28, 2011 at 7:31 pm

    We have a 1950 style Cape Cod and lived in it since 1950. We are the only owner of this house. We like to keep the style however, we need to replace two large picture windows. In 1990 we heard a shot and found that a hole developed on the outside window. Over the years there is a hairline crack. What type of window would be best. I can send photo of the house if you wish.

    edward j bambrick February 14, 2012 at 6:01 pm

    I enjoy the era of Capes Cods and New England style homes. Being an artist and graphic designer what type of art was prevelant, more common for craftsman and historical homes to display – portraits or wildlife?

    Thank you,
    Ed

    Shaun February 15, 2012 at 10:16 pm

    We have a antique cape 1754-1780, which has been modified much over the years. We would like to bring it back (including the Beverly Jog which was filled in) to original. It was moved twice and no longer has the center chimney. I’m looking for a place to get examples of original cape floor plans.
    Thanks Shaun

    Nancy Hope October 22, 2012 at 9:42 am

    I have been looking for home plans for small 3/4 cape or small cape with
    addition to no avail. , preferably under 1400 sq feet. An open plan with
    small guest bedrm or study, 1 full bedrm, and open kit/dining/livrm with
    2nd story space utilized as a loft. Can you help me? Thank you, Nancy Hope

    Tammy king December 7, 2012 at 12:06 am

    My husband and I are looking for plans of an old antique house, prefer a cape cod style, something that we could get a replica built on our property in Newfoundland Canada. overlooking the ocean, so it will take a beating from the elements there. We want all modern gadgets. Size of first floor aprox. 1200 sq ft.
    Thank you so much for your time.

    Jennie November 10, 2013 at 5:33 pm

    Looks like everyone is having as much trouble as me finding original house plans…

    Leave a Comment



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