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Plants for the Arts & Crafts Garden

Arts & Crafts gardeners and environmental activists have something in common: a love of native plants. Use them to create a period-perfect (and eco-friendly) garden.
By Clare Martin

     photo by Judith Tankard

    Photo by Judith Tankard

    When luminaries of Arts & Crafts garden design such as William Morris, Gertrude Jekyll, and William Robinson promoted the use of native plants, their purpose for doing so was primarily aesthetic. Plants that belonged with the landscape embodied the values of “honesty and simplicity” that were the hallmarks of the movement, and contributed to a uniqueness of character that Morris and others feared was being eroded by the showy, exotic blooms popular in gardens the Victorian era.

    Fast-forward more than a century, and you’ll find that today, the same idea has been embraced anew by environmental enthusiasts, but for a very different reason. Because native plants have adapted to grow in a particular region, they require very little watering or other maintenance, requiring less of a strain on natural resources.

    All of this adds up to good news for those looking to create an ideal Arts & Crafts garden—not only will you adhere to the principles of the movement by using native plants, but you’ll also do something good for the Earth, and (perhaps most important) save yourself a bit of time and money on maintenance, too. Check out our charts of some common native plants in each region of the country, and start planning a garden that complements your home and its setting. (Note: For a more complete list by state, go to www.plantnative.org.)

    Southeast
    Trees ShrubsPerennials
    Ash (White, Green)
    Beech (American, Blue)
    Birch (River, Yellow, Sweet)
    Cedar (Eastern Red)
    Cherry (Black, Pin)
    Cypress (Pond, Bald)
    Dogwood (Flowering, Pagoda, Swamp, Silky)
    Elm (Winged, Cedar)
    Hemlock (Canadian, Carolina)
    Hickory (Bitternut, Pignut)
    Holly (American, Cassine, Deciduous, Possumhaw, Bigleaf Gallberry, Winterberry)
    Magnolia (Southern, Sweet Bay)
    Maple (Florida, Red, Sugar, Chalk)
    Oak (White, Red, Post, Cherrybark, Swamp Chestnut, Nuttall, Willow, Live, Laurel, Willow)
    Persimmon
    Pine (Spruce, Longleaf, Shortleaf, Loblolly)
    Redbud
    Serviceberry (Downy)
    Silverbell (Carolina, Two-Winged)
    Tulip Tree
    Viburnum (Blackhaw, Rusty Black)
    Azalea (Sweet, Flame, Pinxter, Pinkshell, Piedmont, Yellow Native, Honeysuckle, Summer, Swamp)
    Beautyberry (American)
    Blueberry (Lowbush, Highbush, Elliot’s)
    Chokeberry (Red, Black)
    Elderberry
    Hazelnut
    Honeysuckle (Bush)
    Huckleberry (Dwarf)
    Hydrangea (Snowhill, Wild, Oak Leaf)
    Leucothoe (Drooping)
    Mountain Laurel
    New Jersey Tea
    Rhododendron (Carolina, Rosebay)
    Rose (Carolina, Swamp)
    Shrubby St. John’s Wort
    Strawberry Bush
    Sumac (Smooth, Fragrant, Staghorn, Shining)
    Sweetspire
    Viburnum (Maple Leaf, Witherod, Arrowwood)
    Allegheny Spurge
    American Wisteria
    Aster (White Wood, Late Purple, Golden, Frost)
    Blazing Star
    Blue Star
    Butterfly Weed
    Cardinal Flower
    Coreopsis (Mouse-eared, Tall)
    Dwarf Crested Iris
    False Indigo
    Green-and-Gold
    Goat’s Beard
    Goldenrod (Wrinkle-leaf, Wreath, Sweet)
    Ironweed
    Jack-in-the-Pulpit
    Lady Slipper (Pink, Yellow)
    Lily (Bead, Spider, Yellow Bell, Turks Cap, Trout)
    Lily of the Valley
    Oconee Bells
    Phlox (Woodland, Summer, Chalice, Carolina, Wild Blue, Garden, Creeping)
    Shooting Star
    Violet (Blue, Birdsfoot)
    Wild Ginger
    Wild Strawberry
    << Back to top
    Mid-Atlantic
    Trees ShrubsPerennials
    Ash (White, Green)
    Basswood (American)
    Beech (American)
    Birch (Yellow, Black, River, Gray)
    Blackgum Cedar (Atlantic White, Eastern Red)
    Cherry (Black)
    Dogwood (Silky, Flowering, Redosier, Gray)
    Fringetree
    Hickory (Pignut, Shagbark, Bitternut)
    Magnolia (Sweetbay)
    Maple (Red, Sugar, Silver)
    Oak (White, Swamp White, Scarlet, Southern Red, Pin, Willow, Northern Red, Post, Black, Chestnut)
    Pine (Shortleaf, Loblolly, Virginia)
    Redbud (Eastern)
    Sassafras
    Sweetgum
    Sycamore
    Tulip Tree
    Willow (Black, Silky, Virginia)
    Alder (Speckled, Smooth, Common)
    Bayberry (Northern, Southern)
    Blueberry (Highbush, Lowbush)
    Buttonbush
    Chokeberry (Red, Black)
    Elderberry
    Marsh Elder
    Mountain Laurel
    Plum (Beach, American)
    Rose (Swamp, Pasture)
    Spicebush
    Sumac (Fragrant, Dwarf-winged, Smooth, Staghorn)
    Sweet Pepperbush
    Viburnum (Arrowwood, Possumhaw, Blackhaw, Maple-Leaf)
    Virginia Sweetspire
    Wax Myrtle
    Winterberry
    Witch Hazel
    Anemone (Canada, Virginia)
    Aster (White Wood, New England, Heart-Leaved, New York, Maryland Golden)
    Beardtongue Blueflag Iris Boneset (Common, Blue)
    Cohosh (Black, Blue)
    Coneflower (Cutleaf, Pale, Purple)
    Dutchman’s Breeches
    Goldenrod (White, Bluestem, Sweet, Roughstem, Seaside, Grassleaf)
    Monkeyflower
    New York Ironweed
    Solomon’s Seal
    Tickseed Turtlehead (White, Pink)
    Virginia Bluebells
    << Back to top
    New England
    Trees ShrubsPerennials
    American Mountain-ash
    Ash (White, Green, Black)
    Aspen (Bigtooth, Quaking)
    Basswood
    Birch (Yellow, Black, Paper, Gray, Cherry)
    Blackgum
    Cedar (Northern White, Atlantic White, Eastern Red)
    Cherry (Pin, Black, Choke)
    Eastern Hemlock
    Elm (American, Red, Slippery)
    Hawthorne (Champlain, Round-Leaved, Frosted, Dotted, Fleshy)
    Hophornbeam (American, Eastern)
    Maple (Black, Red, Mountain, Sugar, Silver, Striped)
    Oak (White, Red, Swamp White, Scarlet)
    Pine (Red, Eastern White, Jack, Pitch)
    Spruce (White, Black, Red)
    Tamarack Willow (Black)
    American Elder
    American Filbert
    Azalea (Swamp)
    Black Chokeberry
    Blueberry (Highbush)
    Bush Cinquefoil
    Buttonbush
    Canada Yew
    Carolina Rose
    Chokecherry
    Dogwood (Gray, Redosier, Pagoda, Swamp, Silky)
    Hobblebush
    Juniper (Common)
    Mountain Laurel
    Nannyberry
    New Jersey Tea
    Serviceberry (Downy, Shadblow, Allegheny)
    Sumac (Staghorn, Shining, Smooth, Dwarf)
    Viburnum (Maple-Leaf, Arrowwood)
    Wild Honeysuckle
    Winterberry
    Witch Hazel
    Aster (New England, New York, White Wood, Bushy, Heath, Smooth, Frost, Red-Stem)
    Bloodroot
    Blue Cohosh
    Blue Flag
    Boneset
    Cinquefoil (Silvery, Common, White)
    Jack-in-the-Pulpit Lily (Blue-Bead, Trout)
    Marsh Marigold
    Milkweed (Swamp, Whorled, Common)
    Solomon’s Seal
    Turtlehead Violet (Downy Yellow, Common Blue, Birdfoot, American Dog)
    << Back to top
    Midwest
    Trees ShrubsPerennials
    American Hornbeam
    Ash (White, Green)
    Birch (River)
    Cherry (Black)
    Hickory (Shagbark, Pignut)
    Maple (Red, Sugar, Silver)
    Oak (Pin, White, Bur, Red, Swamp)
    Ohio Buckeye
    Pawpaw Pine (Short-Leaf, Eastern White)
    Sycamore (American)
    American Beautyberry
    Buckeye (American, Red)
    Buttonbush
    Elderberry Holly (Winterberry)
    Hydrangea (Wild, Oak-Leaf)
    Sweetshrub
    Viburnum (Maple-Leaf, Arrowwood)
    Witch Hazel
    Aster (New England, Arrow-Leaved, Heath, Smooth)
    Butterfly Weed
    Flowering Spurge
    Iris (Crested, Copper, Yellow Water)
    Jacob’s Ladder
    Marsh Marigold
    Milkweed (Common, Swamp)
    Sweet William
    Trillium
    Turtlehead
    Wild Ginger
    << Back to top
    Great Plains
    Trees ShrubsPerennials
    Ash (White, Green)
    Basswood
    Black Walnut
    Downy Hawthorn
    Eastern Cottonwood
    Hackberry Ironwood
    Maple (Silver, Sugar)
    Oak (White, Bur, Red)
    Wild Plum
    American Hazelnut
    Chokecherry
    Dogwood (Gray, Redosier, Swamp)
    Elderberry
    Juniper
    Leadplant
    Rose (Early Wild, Illinois)
    Smooth Sumac
    Aster (Heath, New England, Sky Blue, Smooth, Silky)
    Blazing Star (Rough, Prairie)
    Blue Verbena
    Canada Anemone
    Cup Plant Goldenrod (Gray, Stiff)
    Jack-in-the-Pulpit
    Milkweed (Swamp, Whorled)
    Mountain Mint
    Prairie Clover (White, Purple)
    Prairie Coneflower
    Prairie Larkspur
    Prairie Phlox
    Red Baneberry
    Sneezeweed
    Sunflower (Ox-Eye, Stiff )
    Tick-trefoil
    Wild Bergamot
    Wild Garlic
    << Back to top
    West
    Trees ShrubsPerennials
    Ash (Green, Western Mountain, Rocky Mountain)
    Big Tooth Maple
    Birch (Paper, Water)
    Cottonwood (Narrowleaf, Black, Plains)
    Douglas Fir
    Hackberry (Common, Netleaf)
    Pine (Limber, Western White, Ponderosa)
    Quaking Aspen
    Spruce (Blue, Colorado)
    Buffaloberry (Silver, Canada, Russet)
    Curl-leaf Mountain Mahogany
    Four-wing Saltbush
    Golden Currant
    Ninebark
    Redosier Dogwood
    Rubber Rabbitbrush
    Sagebrush (Big, Silver, Fringed)
    Shrubby Cinquefoil
    Snowberry
    Sumac (Skunkbush, Staghorn, Smooth, Oakleaf)
    Winterfat
    Woods’ Rose
    Blanket Flower
    Buckwheat (Sulphur, Snow, Wyeth)
    Flax (Blue, Lewis)
    Geranium (Sticky, Wild)
    Globemallow (Scarlet, Desert, Orange)
    Lupine (Silver)
    Pearly Everlasting
    Penstemon (Wasatch, Firecracker, Palmer, Rocky Mountain)
    Prairie Clover
    Pussytoes (Little, Rosy)
    Sunflower (Wooly, Western, Maximilian)
    Yarrow (Common, Western)
    Yucca (Soapweed, Texas Red)
    << Back to top
    Southwest (West Texas, Arizona, NM, Nevada)
    Trees ShrubsPerennials
    Ash (Arizona, Flowering)
    Box Elder
    Fir (Western White, Subalpine, Douglas)
    Juniper (Alligator, Utah, Rocky Mountain)
    Maple (Rocky Mountain, Bigtooth)
    Mountain Birch Netleaf Hackberry
    Oak (Gambel’s, Gray, Canyon Live, Arizona White)
    Pine (Pinyon, Bristlecone, Limber, Ponderosa)
    Quaking Aspen Spruce (Engelmann, Blue)
    Sweet Acacia Sycamore (Arizona)
    Tornillo Walnut (Arizona, Texas)
    Western Cottonwood
    Arizona Wild Rose
    Black Twinberry
    Broom Dalea
    Desert Olive
    Elderberry (Blue, Mexican)
    False Indigo
    Mountain Snowberry
    Saltbush (Four-Wing, Spiny)
    Silver Buffaloberry
    Western Pussy Willow
    Western Thimbleberry
    Winterfat
    Yellow Bells
    Agave (Palmer, Perry)
    Aster (Pacific, Smooth)
    Buttercup Coyote Mint
    Desert Onion
    Desert Paintbrush
    Larkspur (Desert, Barestem)
    Lupine (Silvery, Palmer’s)
    Pussytoes
    Red Root Buckwheat
    Sego Lily
    Showy Fleabane
    Spring Beauty
    Sweet Sand Verbena
    Western Monkshood
    Yellow Gaillardia
    Yucca (Blue, Soaptree)
    << Back to top
    West Coast
    Trees ShrubsPerennials
    Alder (Red, Box, White)
    Aspen (Quaking)
    Birch (Paper, Mountain)
    Fir (Grand, Noble, Douglas)
    Giant Sequoia
    Maple (Vine, Bigleaf)
    Oregon Ash
    Pacific Dogwood
    Ponderosa Pine
    Redwood
    Sitka Spruce
    Western Hemlock
    Elderberry (Red, Black)
    Evergreen Huckleberry
    Hairy Manzanita
    Indian Plum
    Kinnikinnick
    Ocean Spray
    Oregon Grape
    Red Flowering Currant
    Rose (Woods, Nootka)
    Salal
    Salmonberry
    Snowberry
    Twinberry
    Western Spiraea
    Alpine Daisy
    Bigpod Mariposa
    Fairy Bells
    Globe Mallow
    Iris (Douglas, Rocky Mountain)
    Oregon Stonecrop
    Pacific Aster
    Pearly Everlasting
    Scarlet Columbine
    Shooting Star
    Swamp Onion
    Tiger Lily
    Tower Larkspur
    Vanilla Leaf
    Western Bleeding Heart
    Western Monkshood
    Published in: Old-House Journal July/August 2008

    { 1 comment }

    Charles J May 19, 2010 at 12:17 pm

    I was advised not to plant any Ash trees (central NY state) as they are being devastated by some disease or pest that is expected to reach the east coast in another year or two. Similar to the loss of so many black pines about 20 years ago. Can anyone provide more info about this sad situation? Also, readers of this great article might also want to check out the following related site:
    http://www.squidoo.com/invasive-species



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