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How to Take Care of Your Radiators

Got a burning question about your radiators? Whether you need to know how to bleed them or are wondering why they're silver, we've got all the answers in this comprehensive guide. By Dan Holohan

    A hot-water radiator in Ruthmere, a 1910 Beaux Arts house in Elkhart, Indiana, displays a typical bottom-end pipe connection.

    A hot-water radiator in Ruthmere, a 1910 Beaux Arts house in Elkhart, Indiana, displays a typical bottom-end pipe connection. (Photo: Joseph Hilliard)

    Hot-Water Radiators 101

    In hot-water radiators, a pressure-reducing valve between the city water and your hot-water heating system keeps it filled all the time. Most two-story homes need 12-psi pressure, and that’s the factory setting of the valve. If your old house has three stories and there are radiators on the top floor, you may need to adjust the valve to feed water at 18-psi pressure to make sure the radiators at the top are full.

    Once filled, a circulating pump moves the heated water from your boiler to your radiators and back. In the old days, many hot-water heating systems didn’t have circulating pumps; the water flowed by gravity, with hot water rising and cold water falling. Because of this, many freestanding, cast-iron radiators have their pipe connections at the bottom of the radiator. The heated water enters the radiator and rises by convection, while the cooler water inside the radiator falls back to the boiler.

    Before circulating pumps arrived, the path of least resistance for the water was always the top-floor radiators. The old-timers slowed the flow to the uppermost radiators by inserting a metal orifice (a nickel-size piece of metal with a small hole) inside the radiator’s supply valve. A contractor friend told me his grandfather would make these from Prince Albert tobacco tins. He would use tin snips to cut a circle and then punch a hole with a nail—worked like a charm.

    The challenge, though, is that when you add a pump to the system, the path of least resistance shifts to the radiators on the first floor, and that often causes the radiators upstairs to be cold. Where there is no flow of hot water, there is no heat. If you vent and don’t get any air, and the radiator still doesn’t get hot, this is most likely the problem. The pros know this, and on a troubleshooting call, most will remove the orifices from the upper-floor radiators and install them on the lower-floor radiators to help balance the system.

    Steam Radiators 101

    The pipe on this wall likely feeds a radiator sitting on the floor above this one-pipe steam unit. (Photo: Alli Coate)

    If you have steam heat, each of your radiators will have either one or two pipes. All steam radiators take advantage of gravity to get the condensed steam (called “condensate”) back to the boiler. The key to making it all work is to keep the system pressure low. If you can’t heat your old house with 2-psi pressure or less (that’s the pressure the Empire State Building uses), something is wrong.

    High-pressure steam can hold the air vents on a one-pipe steam system closed, and with the vents locked closed, the air can’t leave the system. If the air can’t get out, the steam can’t get in. High pressure also can cause the condensate to stay up in the system, and this can lead to hammering sounds and high fuel bills. The device that controls the pressure is the “pressuretrol,” and it’s on the boiler. For house heating, it should always be on its lowest possible setting.

    One-pipe steam radiator sections often are connected only across their bottoms. A section is like an individual slice in a loaf of bread. Steam is lighter than air, so when it enters a one-pipe steam radiator through the supply valve at the bottom of the radiator, it will rise, pushing the air ahead of itself. The air will leave the radiator through the air vent, which is on the last section, and about a third of the way down from the top. Why? If the vent were at the very top of that last section, the lighter-than-air steam would close it before most of the radiator got hot. Remember, if the air can’t get out, the steam can’t get in.

    Two-pipe steam radiators have the steam-supply valve on either the top of the radiator or (more rarely) on the bottom. The return—the pipe the condensate uses to return by gravity to your boiler—is always at the bottom of the radiator. This might take the form of a steam trap, or it might be what we call a “vapor” device, which is found in dozens of shapes and sizes. Unlike one-pipe radiators, you can adjust the supply valve on a two-pipe radiator to let in more or less steam, which is the main advantage of this system. In a one-pipe radiator, the steam and condensate share that confined space within the one-pipe supply valve, and if you throttle that valve, you’ll get a lot of banging noises and squirting air vents as the steam tosses the water around in the tight confines of the partially closed valve.

    Steam radiators connected across both the top and bottom can be converted easily to run on hot water.

    Steam radiators connected across both the top and bottom can be converted easily to run on hot water. (Photo: Clare Martin)

    Candidates for Conversion

    Because two-pipe steam radiators have connections across both the top and bottom of each radiator section, they can be converted to run on hot water. (One-pipe radiators, on the other hand, can’t be converted, primarily because they’re only connected on the bottom.) Old steam radiators typically require more maintenance than their hot-water counterparts (including flushing the boiler’s low-water cutoff once a week so the boiler doesn’t clog and burn out), which is why many contractors recommend conversion.

    There’s much to consider before you do this, though. Because hot-water radiators have to run at a lower temperature, your radiator needs to be large enough to deliver ample heat on the coldest days. Since most steam radiators are oversized to begin with (see “Appearance Is Everything,” below), this usually isn’t a problem. The biggest question to consider is whether your steam radiators and old pipes can take the 12- to 18-psi pressure required by a hot-water system. Up until now, that old steam system has been working with less than 2-psi pressure. If there are any leaks, you’ll notice them when you switch to hot water, so it’s best to look for leaks while you still have steam. A simple way to do this is to raise the pressure (only temporarily!) to 10 psi and conduct a thorough search for leaks.

    Appearance Is Everything

    Wooden covers, such as this one from the Wooden Radiator Cabinet Co., provide an attractive way to disguise radiators, but they also cut down on output by as much as 30 percent.

    Wooden covers, such as this one from the Wooden Radiator Cabinet Co., provide an attractive way to disguise radiators, but they also cut down on output by as much as 30 percent.

    When the airborne Spanish Influenza pandemic of 1918 arrived and took the lives of 675,000 Americans, many people became afraid of the air within their homes—and for good reason. The Board of Health responded in 1919 by insisting that people keep their windows cracked open during the winter to let in fresh air. Consequently, radiators got bigger—big enough to heat an entire house on the coldest winter day, often with the windows open. (On milder days, the thermostat will shut off one-pipe steam radiators before they can get hot all the way across.)

    Oversizing radiators was the norm during the Roaring ’20s, but when the Great Depression arrived—and because the Spanish Influenza never returned—people began shutting their windows to save fuel, and all those oversized radiators working overtime made it pretty hot inside.

    People soon learned, thanks to a 1935 National Bureau of Standards report, that paint containing metal flakes could cut a radiator’s output by up to 20 percent. They began bronzing their radiators with either aluminum or gold bronzing paint, which is why many old radiators are colored either silver or bronze.

    People also discovered that putting an enclosure over a radiator would cut down on its output. A simple shelf over the top of a cast iron radiator cuts 20 percent of its output. The classic radiator enclosure, which has a solid top and a metal, perforated front, will reduce output by 30 percent, which is why we find them in so many houses.

    Bleeding a radiator

    Radiator Repair: Bleeding

    If you find your hot-water radiators aren’t as warm as you’d like, they might need bleeding. Because cold water holds more air than hot water, when the water is heated, that air comes out of the solution and rises to the top, usually finding a home in the radiators. Once there, it can block the flow of water, causing some radiators to remain cold. “Bleeding” is the process of opening an air vent to allow the trapped air to escape so that flow can continue.

    To bleed a hot-water radiator, look for the air vent near the top. Turn down your thermostat to stop the water from flowing. Have a small bucket and a rag ready to catch any squirts, and then open the vent with a screwdriver or a vent key (old-fashioned clock-winding keys often fit radiator vents). Once the air stops sputtering and the water begins to flow, you’re done.

    All steam radiators start out completely filled with air, and they will bleed themselves automatically as long as the system is working properly. One-pipe radiators bleed through their air vents; two-pipe radiators bleed through the device you see on the outlet side of the radiator (that’s the pipe closest to the floor).

    Radiator Repair: Leaks

    When it comes to fixing leaking radiators, there’s no easy solution—it all depends on where the leak is and how severe it is. Steam radiators, because they’re under much less pressure than hot water radiators, are usually the easier of the two to fix. To begin, first determine where the leak is. An inspection mirror (available at your local hardware store) can help, since it will allow you to see around corners and up into spaces not easily viewed. If the leak is just a pinhole, and not a major disaster from a hard freeze, you may be able to fix it.

    There are no products you can pour into a radiator to stop a leak, but a representative from J-B Weld Company of Sulphur Springs, Texas, says many of their customers have had great success using J-B Weld to fix old cast-iron radiators. Several professionals who visit my web site,, also report having used it to successfully repair radiator leaks.

    The process is a bit involved, though. First, drain the radiator and remove any paint, primer, or rust from the area of the leak. Next, clean the surface with a non-petroleum-based cleaner, such as acetone or lacquer thinner, to remove all dirt, grease, and oil. Then rough up the surface with a file, mix the two elements of the product together in 50/50 proportions, and apply it to a thickness of no less than 1/32 inch, being careful not to get any on your skin or in your eyes. After letting it dry for at least 15 hours, you can check and see what you’ve got.

    I asked if the product could handle the fluctuations in temperature—and resulting expansion and contraction—common in cast-iron radiators. The rep told me the product actually “softens” when heated, and will move with the metal. It’s not the sort of softening you’ll notice, though. You’d have to get the temperature up to 400° F to see that happen (the product is good up to 500°). Typically, a steam radiator will top out at about 229°, and a hot-water radiator at about 180°. As long as you can access the leak (and are willing to put in the effort), it sounds like this might be a good solution.

    Dan Holohan runs the popular website and has written 15 books on the subject, including The Lost Art of Steam Heating.

    Published in: Old-House Journal November/December 2008


    una neville November 23, 2010 at 11:32 am

    any advice on cleaning and painting a cast iron radiator would be most appreciated. I read that SoyGel is a good product for cleaning.
    Many thanks!

    Peggy Kennedy April 17, 2011 at 10:52 pm

    Our radiator covers do not loose heat…we include 1/2 inch foil-back insulation under the tops of each cabinet. This deflects the heat into the room away from cold windows and outside walls. This can actually increase the temperature in the room up to 4 degrees. Please post this info.
    The Wooden Radiator Cabinet Co.

    Franc January 11, 2012 at 7:52 pm

    I have an two pipe hot water radiator system in the house. The bedroom radiator has suddenly started to make gargling noises and I do not seem to be able to stop it? I have opened the top valve to let air out…It flow out with pressure for a few seconds and then NOTHING! No water nothing at all. can u help

    check your water pressure you might need to adjust the water pressure. May 23, 2012 at 10:44 pm

    depending on what floor your raditor is on might be the problem not enough head pressure.

    Jocelyn October 9, 2012 at 7:33 am

    At the end of the winter, I went to bleed my radiator in the bathroom. I heard this long running rush of water. Now I find that all of my upstairs radiators have emptied. I have tried everything including turning the heat to 90 and bleeding the radiators up top. I have bleed them slowly and let the air out and closed it. I have left the radiator screw completely out thinking this would signal the system that water needs to come in. I have sucked water into the bathroom radiator to be sure that it will fill. I even hear as water travels through the system. Nothing seems to work to fill these radiators. What should I do?

    Bart Brinkman December 9, 2012 at 11:08 pm

    I have two pipe hot water radiators. One pipe is at the top of the radiator and this side has a valve on it. The pipe at the other side is at the bottom of the radiator. Which side (end) is supposed to be getting the warm water (supply end) and which end should be the return end?

    Glenn W. Robinson December 12, 2012 at 12:24 am

    I have steam radiators that are very ornate and that I would like to use on a hot water system. They are single column style and of course do not have the pipe going through all the fins at the top. If I drill and tap each fin at the top and put in bleeder valves can they be used on a hot water system?


    Roseanne December 27, 2012 at 1:51 pm

    I heard this long running rush of water. Now I find that all of my upstairs radiators have emptied. I have tried everything including turning the heat to 90 and bleeding the radiators up top. I have bleed them slowly and let the air out and closed it. I have left the radiator screw completely out thinking this would signal the system that water needs to come in. I have sucked water into the bathroom radiator to be sure that it will fill. I even hear as water travels through the system. Nothing seems to work to fill these radiators. What should I do?

    Need glass holder for feet of cast iron raidiator January 5, 2013 at 10:17 am

    Hi, I have the very old cast iron raidiators and one looks like the foot is going to go through an old floor in one room. Where can I buy something to place under the legs of the raidiator, I remember the glass ones but do not know what they are called or where to look for them.

    Bernie February 17, 2013 at 4:27 pm

    I have A two pipe system when the system comes on I get hammering and banging sound in the raidiator what can I do the system is about ten years old

    Thank you

    Tom February 27, 2013 at 7:36 pm

    I have 8 cast iron radiators in my house. I only have 3 or 4 that get hot. 2 upstairs and 2 downstairs. The psi in my system is 10. I have bled out all of the radiators and only get air out of one of them. Any ideas to what might be wrong and how I can fix it. Also I couple of years ago I tried to bleed out my expansion tank and it seemed that next winter is when I started to have these problem. Also the system is a pretty old system.

    scott farl January 23, 2014 at 2:24 pm

    my radiator in the bathroom had water leaking out of the chech valve that is at the end of the radiator 3/4 up at end of radiator when it gets hotwatergdrips out

    Anna July 21, 2014 at 1:15 pm

    Hello, I recently bought a home built in 1960 with the original recessed radiators. I noticed, while trying to clean them, that there was some sort of insulated foil between the wall and radiator. My question and concern is, could this possibly be asbestos ? Thank you

    Joe November 16, 2014 at 5:25 pm

    Can you replace a radiator valve handle without replacing the whole valve/draining the system?

    Chauncey Moran January 5, 2015 at 12:23 pm

    I have a problem of a leaking pipe and low pressure as well as 2 nd floor radiators not receiving hot water. I have bled the radiators each year on the first floor. They responded by flowing water. Currently no water comes out only air for several minutes . The room where the thermostat is located is up to heat and other first floor radiators are warm 90degrees. Current conditions at the Kohler boiler ( 1920 ) are water at 120 and pressure at 3 psi normally around 10-20 for that temperature. Unfortunately most heating services in the area know dry little about boiler / convection heating systems. The incoming water is treated an quite soft. What’s is going on here ; the leak is a drip and Ws are trying to stop it with EP 200 which has worked on other repairs not related to the heating system. How do we get the pressure back? And air out ? Is Water not coming in to replace the leak? How can we determine that? Appreciate your response other than call a local professional as I have not found that to be productive for the past 30 years operating this system In the be ginning I was privileged to have an old retired Navy boiler operator who kept me educated on keeping the system running. I appreciate your information and taking time to read my comments Chauncey

    Barry Kroeker January 8, 2015 at 11:27 am

    Dan, from the look of the comments above, it seems to me like a lot of folks could use some additional information on bleeding hot water radiators and checking water pressure issues relating to filling them. Do you have some resource links you could recommend–especially some that would include pictures and illustrations?

    Kirsti Juergens January 19, 2015 at 11:02 pm

    We have a two pipe steam boiler system. Recently we have been hearing water gurgling and dripping coming from inside of the radiator in our bedroom on the second floor. It gets really hot with the supply valve open only slightly. Can this be damaging to the radiator? Or the system? Is it caused by a faulty drain valve?

    phyllis February 16, 2015 at 2:40 pm

    I have an family room extension with 4 cast iron steam radiators. The radiators get warm but not hot and I am only able to bring the room up to 66 degrees at its best on days in the single didget numbers. I this normal?

    Amanda Dean February 18, 2015 at 2:56 am

    Hi, I just moved into a big house that was built in 1928 I think, and its radiator steam heat and it is 3 floors with heaters. The second and 3rd floors get so hot I have to keep windows open, (it’s literally 1 degree outside right now!) in Cincinnati, Ohio. And the first floor my mother has to use electric heaters because it stays cold down there. I had the banging problem really bad until reading the info on this page and it stopped as soon as I read what to try , thank you for that by the way!

    sally gustafson February 19, 2015 at 6:54 pm

    How do I get in touch with the J B Weld Co in Texas. I have a hot water radiator that has cracked and caused Niagara Falls in my basement, from the 2nd floor. Do you thik it’s worth trying since I’m having trouble finding a replacement radiator.

    Amanda Dean February 20, 2015 at 9:16 pm

    Sally, JB Weld is a 2 part adhesive that is sold in auto parts stores and retail stores like Walmart or Home Depot. There are several different kinds of it but I successfully fixed a leaking oil pan on a car once with it. It is really inexpensive and I would absolutely try using it before replacing. The stuff works really good, best of luck to you, Amanda

    Natalie October 1, 2015 at 3:38 pm

    I have 3/4 hot water rads upstairs that will not get hot. I bled them and nothing, no water, no air, nothing at all. My main floor is perfect temperature and my basement is hot. Suggestions as to where to start? My boyfriend is a plumber but unfortunately they don’t teach this info to apprentices anymore. Also, we had our boiler serviced last winter and it is working well…

    Thanks for any help!

    Cathy October 5, 2015 at 6:16 pm

    Can’t get water to bleed out the third floor I think the tank needs water how do I do that

    Ruben Santiago November 21, 2015 at 11:57 am

    I have a holding water tank for my heater system and I need to replace it because it is leaking. Where can I get a replacement? Thank you

    Dave Vecera February 8, 2016 at 5:41 pm

    The past few winters our hot water (I think it’s a 50 gallon tank) heater seems to run out of hot water much faster than in previous years. I mean within minutes of starting a shower. We never used to have this problem. Does the water from the hot water heater also supply our radiator system (1940 house)? What could be the explanation for this drastic decrease in the availability of hot water?

    Dejan March 6, 2016 at 1:25 pm

    Very good article.

    John Carston June 3, 2016 at 12:14 pm

    I didn’t know that all steam radiators relied on gravity for their operation. I can see how keeping the system pressure low would be key for a steam radiator to work. I’ll keep this in mind when maintaining a radiator. Thanks for the helpful post.

    Braden Bills July 6, 2016 at 9:54 am

    I’ve been trying to figure out what to do with my radiator. I think it could be a faulty valve. I would love to fix it myself, but I don’t think I’m very good at it. Thank you for sharing!

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